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經濟學人:墨西哥一代大文豪卡洛斯·富恩特斯

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Carlos Fuentes

卡洛斯·富恩特斯
Carlos Fuentes, man of letters, died on May 15th, aged 83
學者卡洛斯·富恩特斯于5月15日逝世,享年83歲

EVERY summer holiday when he was at school, Carlos Fuentes would stay with his grandmothers, one in Veracruz, on the steamy Gulf coast, the other from Mazatlán, near the badlands of Sinaloa on the Pacific. The women told the young boy stories, tales of Mexico, of revolution, of peasants who were leaving the land to make great cities, of bandits, of love and lust, of feud and food, of Indians, of Spaniards and baroque Spanish towns in America. He took these stories back with him to Washington, to Santiago, to Buenos Aires, to wherever his father, a Mexican diplomat, was posted (Carlos himself was born in Panama). The solitude of this peripatetic childhood turned the boy into a writer: he began to publish his stories when he was 11, and never stopped until the day he died.

上學時的每個暑假,卡洛斯·富恩特斯都會與他的祖母們呆在一起,一位在潮濕的墨西哥海灣維拉克魯斯州,另一位來自太平洋錫那羅亞州不毛之地上的馬薩蘭特。兩位女士給這只小男孩講故事,講關于墨西哥,關于革命,關于離開這片土地去建設城市的農民,關于歹徒、愛與欲望、封地與食物、印第安人、美洲的西班牙人和巴洛克西班牙城鎮的故事。他把這些故事揣在身邊去到華盛頓、圣地亞哥、布宜諾斯艾利斯,以及他老爸被派遣去的地方任何地方,他老爸是一位墨西哥外交官(卡洛斯本人是出生在巴拿馬的)。孤獨輾轉的童年把他變成了一位作家:他11歲就開始出版自己寫的故事了,出到死才停下來。

The routine was always the same. He rose early and wrote, in longhand on the right-hand page of large blocks, later correcting on the left-hand page. E-mail he did not use, not even a computer. He was, in the old-fashioned sense, a man of letters. There were some 60 books, novels mainly but plays and essays too, as well as much political commentary and journalism. Afternoons and evenings, whether in Mexico City or London, where in recent decades he lived for part of each year to escape celebrity, were for reading (his tastes were wide, including Wordsworth), the cinema (a lifelong passion), for seeing friends and for seduction, at which he was a master. He was always elegantly dressed, his suits as sharp as his conversation; his verbal thrusts were often delivered with a wicked twinkle in his eye. A dandy, his detractors said, but women loved that in him. He claimed that his conquests included Jean Seberg and Jeanne Moreau, and perhaps they did.

他的日常工作一成不變。他早起先在右手頁的大格子里執筆寫作,過一會兒在左手頁上進行修改。他不用伊妹兒,甚至連電腦也不碰。他是一位傳統的學者。有大約60本書,大多數是小說但也有戲劇和論文,還有很多政論和新聞體文章。下午和晚上,無論是在墨西哥城或是倫敦,這些地方他在最近幾十年內每年都要住一段時間來避世,是為了閱讀(他的口味很廣泛,包括華茲華斯)、電影(畢生的激情),為了見朋友和勾引人,在這方面他是老手。他總是穿著考究,他的穿著與它的言談一樣犀利;他的口頭抨擊總是帶著調皮的眼光。愛貶低他的人說他是花花公子,而女士們通常很吃他那一套。他聲稱他的戰利品包括珍﹒西寶和珍妮﹒摩露,也許她們是臣服于他了。

Clearing the air

凈化空氣

So prolific was his output that it was inevitably uneven. Some of the early novels will last the best. They are panoramic, richly-textured reflections on Mexican history, its underlying contradictions of world view between Indian and Spaniard and their sometimes awkward melding in mestizaje and in the country’s revolution of 1910-17. “La Región Más Transparente” (translated as “Where the Air is Clear”), his ambitious debut novel set in Mexico City, reflects on the challenge to Mexican identity posed by modernity. “The Death of Artemio Cruz”, published in 1962, chronicles the descent from the idealism of revolution to the cynicism of the long rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) through the life of a politician and newspaper tycoon enriched by graft.

他的太多產難免會造成不平衡。一些早期的作品將會維持在最佳。它們是墨西哥豐富歷史的完整寫照,印度人和西班牙人之間世界觀的根本矛盾,麥士蒂索人和這個國家在1910-17改革的一段尷尬融合。“La Región Más Transparente”(譯為“空氣清新的地方”)是他首次野心勃勃在墨西哥城寫的小說,反映了現代性對墨西哥身份提出的挑戰。1962年出版的“阿特米奧克魯斯之死”記錄了在從理想主義革命淪為制度革命黨(PRI)長期統治的犬儒主義背景下,他從一位政客變為報業大亨貪污肥足的一生。

The creative antagonism of the relationship between Spain and America was an obsession for Mr Fuentes, recurring in “Terra Nostra”, a sprawling historical fantasy, and “The Buried Mirror”, an extended essay. The narrator in “Artemio Cruz” imagines in a baroque church

西班牙和美國之間創造性的對立關系是富恩特斯偏執的意淫,并反復出現在一部叫做“Terra Nostra”的龐大歷史幻想中和一篇叫做“The Buried Mirror”的拓展性論文里。“阿特米奧克魯斯”里的敘述者想象在一個巴洛克風格的教堂里

“the fa?ade of the Conquest, severe yet jocund, with one foot in the dead Old World and the other in the New, which did not begin here but on the other side of the ocean: the New World arrived when they arrived; fa?ade of austere walls to protect their avaricious, sensual, happy hearts. You will enter the nave, where all that was Spanish will be conquered by the macabre smiling lavishness of Indian saints, angels, and gods.”

征服者的嘴臉嚴峻而快樂,一只腳在舊世界另一只腳在新世界,它不是從這兒開始的但在大洋的另一邊:當它們到達的時候新世界也來到了;嚴峻的外墻用來保護貪婪、世俗、快樂的心。你將進入教堂正廳,那里西班牙人的一切都將被印度圣徒、天使和上帝的死亡微笑所征服。“

Mr Fuentes was a leading figure in the Latin American literary boom of the 1960s and 1970s, a friend of both Gabriel García Márquez and Mario Vargas Llosa (as well as of Octavio Paz until their relationship was destroyed by an intemperate attack on Mr Fuentes in Mr Paz’s literary magazine). Many thought it unjust that he alone of these four did not receive the Nobel prize.

富恩特斯先生在20世紀六七十年代繁榮的拉丁美洲文壇是頭號人物,他是Gabriel García Márquez和馬里奧·巴爾加斯·略薩的朋友(也是奧柯塔維歐·派茲的朋友,直到他們的友誼被一篇寫在派茲先生文學雜志里對富恩特斯先生的過激批判所摧毀)。很多人認為四個人當中就只有他沒有得到諾貝爾獎這件事是不公平的。

He was no magical realist. His inspirations were Cervantes and Borges. His language was complex. He employed multiple voices and styles. His upbringing in two cultures, Latin American and Anglo-Saxon, made him both a Mexican and a universal writer.

他不是魔幻現實主義作家。他的靈感是賽凡提斯和博格斯。他的語言很復雜。他使用了多種聲音和風格。他是在兩種文化背景下成長的,拉丁美洲和安格魯-撒克遜,使他變成了一位墨西哥及世界級的作家。

He was a man of the left, but a democratic one. He was initially enthusiastic about both the Cuban revolution and the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, but later criticised their authoritarianism. He had no time for Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez, calling him a “tropical Mussolini”.

他曾是個左翼,但卻是個民主的左翼。他曾熱衷于古巴革命和尼加拉瓜政黨桑蒂諾政權,但之后又抨擊了他們的專制主義。他沒有時間給委內瑞拉的雨果﹒查韋斯,稱他為“熱帶墨索里尼”。

His later years were marked by personal tragedy. Both his children with Silvia Lemus, his second wife who was a television presenter, died before him, one of complications from haemophilia and the other from drug addiction. As Mexico descended into drug-related violence, his later novels became darker. “La Voluntad y La Fortuna” (“Destiny and Desire”) begins with the musings of a severed head, floating in the Pacific. He dismissed Enrique Pe?a Nieto, the PRI candidate and front-runner in Mexico’s presidential election, due on July 1st, as a lightweight, unequal to the country’s problems.

他的晚年基本上就是個悲劇。他的孩子和第二任夫人職業是電視節目主持人的西爾維婭﹒萊姆斯,都死得比他早,一位死于血友病的并發癥,另一位死于吸毒成癮。當墨西哥落入與毒品有關的暴力行為時,他的后期作品也變得黑暗起來。“La Voluntad y La Fortuna”(“命運與欲望”)以一只漂浮在大西洋上斷頭的沉思開篇。他不理睬Enrique Pe?a Nieto,制度革命黨的候選人也是墨西哥總統競選的領先人物,7月1日任期到期,他認為此人無足輕重,也沒有能力解決這個國家存在的問題。

Mr Fuentes was at home in Europe, New York and Mexico. But he still felt the pull of Veracruz, where Cortes and the Spaniards first landed. When asked in 2009 to write an article about his favourite museum for Intelligent Life, our sister magazine, he instantly offered to return to the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa, the state capital, with its colossal Olmec stone heads and laughing figurines, the union of the sacred and the human. Veracruz, he declared, was “where I belong”.

富恩特斯先生在歐洲、紐約和墨西哥的時候感到自由自在。但是他仍然能夠感受到維拉克魯斯的召喚,那里是科爾特斯和西班牙人第一次登陸的地方。2009年要求他為我們的姐妹雜志智慧生活寫一篇關于他最喜愛的博物館時,他立刻表示愿意回到州府哈拉帕的人類學博物館,擺著巨大奧爾梅克石雕像和神圣笑俑的地方。他聲明維拉克魯斯是他的“歸屬”。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
magical ['mædʒikəl]

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adj. 魔術的,有魔力的,神奇的

 
routine [ru:'ti:n]

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n. 例行公事,常規,無聊
adj. 常規的,

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escape [is'keip]

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v. 逃跑,逃脫,避開
n. 逃跑,逃脫,(逃

 
macabre [mə'kɑ:bə]

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adj. 恐怖的,令人毛骨悚然的,以死亡為主題的

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underlying [.ʌndə'laiiŋ]

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adj. 在下面的,基本的,隱含的

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election [i'lekʃən]

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n. 選舉

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prolific [prə'lifik]

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adj. 多產的,作品豐富的

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diplomat ['dipləmæt]

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adj. 外交官,外交家 n. 外交家

 
verbal ['və:bəl]

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adj. 動詞的,口頭的,用言辭的,用文字的

 
unjust ['ʌn'dʒʌst]

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adj. 不公平的

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