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經濟學人:古巴人權活動家勞拉·普蘭

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Laura Pollan

勞拉·普蘭

Laura Pollan Toledo, teacher and human-rights campaigner, died on October 14th, aged 63.

勞拉·普蘭·托萊多 —— 教師和人權活動家,于10月14日去世,享年63歲。

THE house at 963 Calle Neptuno, in the centre of Havana, was small, but Laura Pollan kept it beautifully. The grey floor-tiles with their snowflake motif were always swept clean, even though her fluffy mongrel terrier shed his long hair everywhere, and though the door was kept open to get some air in from the bike-filled, rowdy, dusty street. In the front living room she had cane chairs with heart-shaped backs, and triangles of lace decorated the shelves. Outside, the tiny back yard was a jungle of pot plants and climbers, with neatly folded washing hung against the ochre walls. And the tower of the Iglesia del Carmen watched over it all.

勞拉·普蘭住在哈瓦那的中心街區Calle Neptuno 963 號,這雖是一所小小居所,但勞拉始終把它打理得整潔漂亮。有著雪花圖案的灰色地磚總是一塵不染,盡管她的長毛geng(反犬旁那個更,這里出不來,悲劇了。)經常會把它的毛發掉落一地,盡管敞開的大門正對著一條滿溢尾氣、嘈雜的、塵土飛揚的大街。在前面的客廳里有幾張藤背椅,它們的靠背是一個心形,三角形的花邊裝飾著座凳。在屋后有一個很小的庭院,滿是盆栽和爬藤植物,如同一個小小叢林,對面赭石墻上的清潔工具掛得整整齊齊。一抬頭就能看到伊格萊西亞卡門塔,它似靜靜觀望著小院。

But her house was also a cell for liberty. The living-room walls were hung with lists of the names of political prisoners, their photos, and a huge chart that showed them bursting from their chains when her group notched up a success. Prisoners’ wives and daughters crowded there for her monthly Literary Teas. She once got 72 women in, under the slowly turning ceiling fan, and put up 25 overnight. They came from all over Cuba: Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, Las Tunas, Manzanillo (in the east, where she was born), even from the Sierra Maestra, where Fidel Castro had holed up in the mountains to start his revolution. They gathered at her house because she was central, and had a telephone. After 2003 the phone kept ringing, and she would answer it in a whisper, knowing it was tapped; each call would end with “Cuidado”, “Be careful”. A security camera and floodlights appeared outside her front door, supplementing the plain-clothes men who loitered there. Her bookshelf now held a tiny statue of Santa Rita, the saint of the impossible.

但她的房子始終是自由王國的一個組分。客廳墻上掛著一個大型圖表,表上列有政治犯的名字和照片,以及他們經歷的事件——這些大都是她們集體努力所達成的突破口。政治犯的妻子、女兒們每月雷打不動地相聚于她們的“文學茶座”。某次,她在她那緩緩轉動的屋頂吊扇下召集了72名婦女,暢談了25個不眠之夜。 她們來自古巴各地:比那爾德里奧省,拉斯圖納斯,曼薩尼約(在東部地區,她出生的地方),圣克拉拉,甚至塞拉利昂Maestra。菲德爾卡斯特羅曾躲藏在山上,開始他的革命。她們聚集在普蘭的家里,以她為中心,那里有一門電話,從2003年后這個電話總不斷響起,伴隨的是她低聲作答的聲音,因為她知道電話已經被竊聽了。每次呼叫結束時總相互致以“保重”、“小心”。她家門前被安裝了一個聚光燈和一個安全攝像頭,不斷有便衣在她家門口走來晃去。現在她的書架上放了一尊小小的圣麗塔雕像,圣麗塔是不可能的守護神。(注:不可能守護神,引自天主教故事)

What had started all this was the arrest of her husband, Héctor Maseda Gutiérrez, for “acting against the territorial integrity of the state”. Seventy-four others were arrested with him in that Black Spring of 2003, and given average prison sentences of 20 years. Ms Pollan knew he had done nothing. The picture of him she wore emblazoned on her T-shirt showed a mild, smiling man, an engineer, who kept his glasses on a cord round his neck. He liked to underline phrases in the newspapers and clip pieces out, organising them under “Politics” or “Environment”. She supposed he was just trying to point out contradictions in the government line. They didn’t discuss it, any more than she took part when his friends from the banned Liberal Democratic Party came round to talk. She would disappear to the kitchen then, making coffee, and leave the men alone.

這一切的開始要從她丈夫被捕說起,埃克托·馬賽達·古鐵雷斯因“妨礙國家領土完整”罪名被捕,和他同時被逮捕還有74人,該事件被稱為2003年黑色之春,這些人平均被判20年徒刑。普蘭女士相信她的丈夫是清白的。她穿著印有他照片的T恤衫:一個溫和而面帶微笑的男人,工程師,用繩子掛著眼鏡,套在脖子上。他喜歡在報紙上圈圈劃劃,或做一些剪報,分成“政治”和“環境”二個類別。她猜想他是想指出政府某些自相矛盾的方面。他倆從不談論這個,她也不參加他和他的被禁止的自由民主黨朋友的小聚會。每到此時她會跑到廚房里去準備咖啡,不大理會男人們的高談闊論。

But they were taken away. Husbands, fathers, brothers, disappeared. Ms Pollan came home from teaching evening class to find 12 state security agents invading her house, carrying away the clippings and two old typewriters. One agent stood by even as she and Héctor tried to say goodbye to each other. Two weeks later she started to bring together the women she kept meeting at the Villa Marista barracks and at various government offices, seeking news of their men. They became the Damas de Blanco, or Ladies in White.

但他們還是被帶走了,她們的丈夫、父親、弟兄,從此消失于她們的視線。普蘭女士上完晚間課回到家里,發現有十二個國家安全人員闖入了她的房子,他們帶走了一些剪報和兩個老式打字機。甚至她和她丈夫告別的時候都有人盯著,不給他們一刻獨處的時間。兩個星期后,她開始召集相關的婦女,她試圖與利亞馬里斯塔營房和多個政府部門會晤,以取得她們的男人的消息。她們成立了人權團體“達馬斯·布蘭科”,也稱為“白衣女士”。

Marching through Miramar

米拉馬爾的示威游行

Ms Pollan came brand-new to campaigning. She was a mother (of Laurita), a housewife and a teacher: someone who loved literature and had taught peasants to read in the early years of the revolution. She had never done anything wilder. Short, blonde and stout, she was not cut out to be hauled into a bus by the police. All she wanted was to see Héctor back, and all the others. Her group would meet each Sunday at the church of Santa Rita in Miramar, Havana’s grandest district, say the rosary, hear mass, and then walk ten blocks in silence along Quinta Avenida on the green verges under the palm trees. The women wore white, symbolising pure intentions, and carried gladioli, a single stem each.

普蘭女士組織了新一輪示威活動。她是一個母親、一個家庭主婦、和一名教師:一個喜歡文學的女子,早些年在革命時期還教農民認字讀書,她沒有做過什么出格的事情。小小的個子,金發碧眼,天生不是會被警察拖進車里的那種人。她的所有愿望是便讓她的丈夫埃克托回家,和所有的其他婦女一樣。她的團體每個星期天都在米拉馬爾區(哈瓦那的最大的一個區)的圣麗塔教堂會面,做禱告,聽彌撒,然后沉默地沿著Quinta Avenida路的綠地在棕櫚樹下走出十個街區。婦女們身著白色衣裙,象征著純凈的意圖,每人手執一根劍蘭支干。

Yet politics crept in. At the end of every march the women would chant “Libertad!”—for Cuba as a whole, as much as for their men. They would throw out pencils with Derechos Humanos on one side and Damas en Blanco on the other, hoping that, slowly, people would pick them up. Enemies called them “mercenaries” and “Ladies in Green”, in the pay of the United States, and Ms Pollan had to admit that they did get American dollars and American parcels for their imprisoned men. Shock mobs of other women were especially bused in to attack them, beat them and pull their hair. Ms Pollan could fight back with the best: when a man called her “Puta!” once, she threw her gladioli in his face. In one battle in September she was crushed against a wall, which may have set off the breathing troubles that killed her.

然而,民主總姍姍來遲。每年三月末,示威的婦女們總會呼喊著“自由!”——為古巴全體人民,也為她們的男人們。她們分發鉛筆,鉛筆一頭印著“白衣女士”,另一頭印著人權聯盟的標志,希望通過宣傳使民主慢慢地深入人心,能得到人們的支持。而她們的對立方稱她們為 “雇傭軍”和被美國收買的“綠色女人”(大概意指美元是綠色的)。普蘭女士不得不承認,她們為了被監禁的丈夫們的確得到了美國的美元和物資支持。被盲目驅使的其他婦女受到煽動來襲擊她們,打她們,拉扯她們的頭發。對于這些,普蘭女士可以強忍著不作還擊,但一次當一個男人罵她“母狗”時,她終于忍無可忍,把手里的劍蘭扔在他的臉上。 在9月在一次示威活動中,她被猛地撞到一堵墻上,這可能引發了她的呼吸系統障礙,最終導致了她的死因。

By then, the 75 prisoners they were campaigning for had been released; most by the intervention of the Catholic Church and the government of Spain, but around 20 by their own efforts. Héctor, gaunt and thin, came out only last February. The numbers of Ladies dwindled, to 15 or so, as their work seemed to be done. But for Ms Pollan it was not done. Her Ladies had to go on marching as long as the laws remained that could fill the prisons again. As long as Cuba was not free, she would go on sitting at her computer with her little dog stretched out on the tiles beside her, alert for the telephone, with her front door open and Santa Rita at the ready, and the ceiling fan turning slowly in the smothering air.

到此時,她們為之抗爭的75名囚犯已經被釋放,大部分人釋放是由于天主教會和西班牙政府的干預,其中有20人的釋放是通過她們的努力。憔悴而瘦弱的赫克托在去年二月才被釋放。此時她的團體慢慢變小了,現只剩下15人左右,她們的目的似乎實現了。但是對于普蘭女士來說,只要那些把人民隨意投入監獄的法律仍然存在,“白衣女士”會持續她們的抗議示威。只要古巴還不是自由之國(民主國家?),普蘭女士仍將坐在她的電腦邊上,她的小狗躺在她的腳邊,灰色地磚花紋延伸開去,她還在等著電話,她的家門仍舊敞開,圣麗塔雕像已經備好,在沉悶的空氣中屋頂吊扇正緩緩地轉動著……

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whisper ['wispə]

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n. 低語,竊竊私語,颯颯的聲音
vi. 低聲

 
intervention [.intə'venʃən]

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