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《關于中美經貿磋商的中方立場》白皮書(2)(中英對照)

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I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world

一、美國挑起對華經貿摩擦損害兩國和全球利益
Trumpeting "America First", the current US administration has adopted a series of unilateral and protectionist measures, regularly wielded tariffs as a "big stick" and coerced other countries into accepting its demands. The US has initiated frequent investigations under the long-unused Sections 201 and 232 against its main trading partners, causing disruption to the global economic and trade landscape. Specifically targeting China, in August 2017 it launched a unilateral investigation under Section 301. Turning a blind eye to China's unremitting efforts and remarkable progress in protecting intellectual property and improving the business environment for foreign investors, the US issued a myriad of slanted and negative observations, and imposed additional tariffs and investment restrictions on China, provoking economic and trade friction between the two countries.
現任美國政府奉行“美國優先”政策,對外采取一系列單邊主義和保護主義措施,動輒使用關稅“大棒”,將自身利益訴求強加于他國。美國啟用塵封多年的“201調查”“232調查”等手段,對各主要貿易伙伴頻頻出手,攪亂全球經貿格局。美國還將矛頭對準中國,于2017年8月啟動單邊色彩濃厚的“301調查”,無視中國多年來在加強知識產權保護、改善外資營商環境等方面的不懈努力和取得的巨大成績,對中國作出諸多不客觀的負面評價,采取加征關稅、限制投資等經貿限制措施,挑起中美經貿摩擦。
Box 1: China's technological innovation is based on self-reliance. Accusing China of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer is utterly unfounded.
專欄1 中國的科技 創新源于自力更生指責中國“盜竊”知識產權、強制技術轉讓毫無依據
China is an innovative and diligent nation. It has created a highly-sophisticated civilization and contributed significantly to human progress over the course of 5,000 years. Since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, and in particular since the beginning of reform and opening up in 1978, China's scientific and technological undertakings have passed through a series of phases. They started from a difficult beginning, forged ahead in the course of reform, and have now achieved multiple breakthroughs featuring a variety of innovations. These achievements have won worldwide recognition. Historical records confirm that China's achievements in scientific and technological innovation are not something we stole or forcibly took from others; they were earned through self-reliance and hard work. Accusing China of stealing intellectual property to support its own development is an unfounded fabrication.
中華民族富有創新精神,勇于吃苦耐勞,在5000多年文明發展進程中,創造了高度發達的文明,為人類進步作出重要貢獻。新中國成立以來特別是改革開放以來,中國的科技事業在艱難中起步,在改革中發展,在創新中突破,取得了舉世矚目的成就。歷史和事實充分證明,中國在科技創新方面取得的成就不是偷來的、不是搶來的,而是通過自力更生、艱苦奮斗得來的,指責中國發展靠“盜竊”知識產權,完全是無中生有、極其荒謬。
China is fully committed to intellectual property protection. It has established a legal system for the protection of intellectual property that is consistent with prevailing international rules and adapted to China's domestic conditions. China values the leading role of judicial measures in protecting intellectual property, and has achieved impressive results. The understanding of the importance of intellectual property among the general public and business community in China has increased, the value of royalties paid to foreign rights-holders has risen significantly, and the number of intellectual property applications and registrations has surged.
中國高度重視知識產權保護,已建立起符合國際通行規則和適應中國國情的知識產權法律體系;重視發揮知識產權司法保護的主導作用,取得顯著成效。中國民眾和企業知識產權保護意識顯著提高,對外支付知識產權使用費大幅提升,知識產權申請和登記量快速增長。
The effective impact of China's intellectual property protection has won broad international recognition. Former WIPO Director General Arpad Bogsch spoke highly of China's legal framework for intellectual property protection, noting that China's achievements are "unmatched in the history of intellectual property protection". The US Chamber of Commerce recognized that China is making concrete progress in creating an intellectual property environment appropriate to the 21st century. In its 2018 China Business Climate Survey Report, the American Chamber of Commerce in China noted that among the main challenges facing its member companies operating in China, concern over intellectual property dropped from 5th place in 2011 to 12th place in 2018. An article in The Diplomat predicted that China will become a leader in global intellectual property. Many of the concerns raised by foreign firms doing business in China have already been addressed through judicial reform and a strengthened enforcement mechanism.
中國的知識產權保護成效獲國際廣泛認可。世界知識產權組織前總干事阿帕德·鮑格胥博士對中國的知識產權法律體系予以高度評價:“這在知識產權發展史上是獨無二的”。美國商會指出,中國在建設面向21世紀的知識產權環境方面正在取得實質性進展。中國美國商會《2018年中國商務環境調查報告》顯示,其會員企業在華運營的主要挑戰中,知識產權侵權行為已由2011年的第5位降低到2018年的第12位。《外交官》雜志文章指出,中國將成為全球知識產權的領軍者。在中國開展業務的外國公司所提出的擔憂,許多已通過司法改革和加強執法機制得到解決。
Respecting the laws of the market economy, China has been actively improving the policy system for innovation, continuously increasing investment in research and development, accelerating the development of innovators, and strengthening international cooperation on technological innovation in an all-round way. In terms of some key innovation indices, China is already among the world's leading players. As China continues to witness a series of major scientific and technological achievements, its industries are gravitating toward the middle and high end, and the country's international influence is markedly increasing. In 2017, total R&D investment in China reached RMB1.76 trillion, ranking second in the world. The number of patent applications reached 1.382 million, ranking No. 1 in the world for the seventh consecutive year. The number of invention patents granted reached 327,000, up by 8.2 percent year-on-year. China ranks third in the world in terms of valid invention patents held.
中國尊重市場經濟規律,積極完善創新政策體系,持續增加研發投人,大力培養創新人才,全方位加強國際科技創新合作。目前,中國的主要創新指標已進人世界前列,重大科技創新成果不斷涌現,引領產業向中高端邁進,國際影響力顯著提升。2017年,全社會研發投人達1.76萬億元,規模居世界第二位;發明專利申請量達到138.2萬件,連續7年居世界首位;發明專利授權32.7萬件,同比增長8.2%,有效發明專利保有量居世界第三。
China has always pursued international technical cooperation with mutual benefit and win-win as the basic value orientation. China's economic development has benefited from international technology transfer and dissemination. International holders of technology have also reaped enormous benefits from this process. China encourages and respects voluntary technical cooperation between Chinese and foreign firms based on market principles. It strongly opposes forced technology transfer and takes resolute action against intellectual property infringement. Accusations against China of forced technology transfer are baseless and untenable.
中國始終以互利共贏作為基本價值取向開展國際技術合作,中國經濟發展受益于國際技術轉讓和傳播,國際技術持有者也從中獲得了巨大利益。中國鼓勵和尊重中外企業按照市場原則自愿開展技術合作,堅決反對強制技術轉讓,嚴厲打擊侵犯知識產權的違法犯罪行為。指責中國強制技術轉讓沒有事實依據,完全站不住腳。
Turning a blind eye to the nature of the economic structure and the stage of development in China and the US, as well as the reality of the international industrial division of labor, the US insists that China's "unfair" and "non-reciprocal" trade policies have created a trade deficit in bilateral commercial exchanges that constitutes "being taken advantage of", leading to unilateral imposition of additional tariffs on China. In fact, in today's globalized world, the Chinese and American economies are highly integrated and together constitute an entire industrial chain. The two economies are bound in a union that is mutually beneficial and win-win in nature. Equating a trade deficit to being taken advantage of is an error. The restrictive measures the US has imposed on China are not good for China or the US, and still worse for the rest of the world.
美國無視中美經濟結構、發展階段特點和國際產業分工現實,堅持認為中國采取不公平、不對等的貿易政策,導致美國出現對華貿易逆差,在雙邊經貿交往中“吃了虧”,并對華采取單邊加征關稅措施。事實上,在經濟全球化時代,中美兩國經濟高度融合,共同構成完整的產業鏈,兩國經濟連骨帶筋、互利共贏,把貿易逆差當作“吃虧”是算錯了賬。美國對中國采取的貿易限制措施不利于中國,也不利于美國,更不利于全球。

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patent ['peitənt, 'pætənt]

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n. 專利,特許
adj. 專利的,顯著的

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voluntary ['vɔləntəri]

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adj. 自愿的,志愿的
n. (教堂禮拜儀式

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appropriate [ə'prəupriət]

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adj. 適當的,相稱的
vt. 撥出(款項)

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impact ['impækt,im'pækt]

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n. 沖擊(力), 沖突,影響(力)
vt.

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innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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n. 創新,革新

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negative ['negətiv]

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adj. 否定的,負的,消極的
n. 底片,負

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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untenable ['ʌn'tenəbl]

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adj. 不能防守的,不能維持的,支持不住的

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transfer [træns'fə:]

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n. 遷移,移動,換車
v. 轉移,調轉,調任

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framework ['freimwə:k]

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n. 結構,框架,參照標準,體系

 
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